The Terra Victoria Joint Military Operations Regulation (JMOR) serves as a high level executive guide for Provincial military operations of both a defensive, peacekeeping and offensive nature. The guide is entirely written based on available state of the art military doctrine combining Roman, Elven, Dwarven, and Carnem racial contributions of a military nature.
The JMOR also incorporates traditional conventional land, maritime and aerial techniques in conjunction with Full Magical Spectrum Operations (FMSO) as well as counter-insurgency operations and counter-terrorism operations.
It is assumed that in order to prepare for as many as possibly military contingencies, a melding of available techniques, tactics and procedures (TTPs) is appropriate. Not all theoretical military contingencies can attempted to be covered in an executive level document. It is assumed that the Victoria Provincial Council would have an array of various types of military and magical forces at their disposal, so all operations could draw upon any available resource in the provincial inventory.
The JMOR does not attempt to cover cross-provincial military operations, nor does it address strictly magical operations, such as could theoretically be possible in inter-planar operations (see Joint Inter-Planar Magical Operations Regulation, JIPMOR, draft).
Due to the fact Terra Victoria is mostly a land-locked province (as the province is currently arrayed at the time of the writing of the JMOR), maritime operations will play a small role in overall document, though, expansion of the province to areas with deep-water ports will require an appendix on Maritime operations in detail.
This publication is the keystone document of the joint operations series. It provides the doctrinal foundation and fundamental principles that guide the Terra Victorian military in joint operations across the range of military operations.
Joint doctrine established in this publication applies to the joint staff, commanders of the Legion and century commands, subunified commands, joint task forces, subordinate components of these commands, and the separate commands attached to Terra Victorian military units.
3. Fundamentals of Joint Operations
The strategic environment is characterized by uncertainty, complexity, and rapid change, which requires persistent engagement. This environment is fluid, with continually changing alliances, partnerships, and new provincial and trans-provincial threats constantly appearing and disappearing. In addition to traditional conflicts, to include emerging peer competitors, significant challenges continue to include irregular warfare (IW), catastrophic terrorism employing weapons of magical destruction (WMD), and threats to disrupt Terra Victoria’s ability to project power and maintain its competitive, military and economic edge.
The strategic environment presents five broad provincial security challenges likely to require the employment of joint forces in the future.
1. A secure Terra Victoria homeland is the provinces first priority.
2. Deterring our adversaries is a Terra Victoria goal.
3. Defending national interests requires not only being able to prevail in conflict, but also taking preventive measures to deter potential adversaries who could threaten the vital interests of Terra Victoria or its allies.
4. Establishing, maintaining, and enhancing security cooperation among our alliances and partners is important to strengthen the regional security framework of Terra Victoria and its partners and strategic allies.
5. Terra Victoria will continue to respond to a variety of civil crises by acting to relieve human suffering and restoring civil functioning, most often in support of civil authorities.
4. Roman Grand Strategy
In its clearest form, strategy deals solely with military issues: either a threat or an opportunity is recognized, an evaluation is made, and a military stratagem for meeting it is devised. However, a successful military strategy may be a means to an end, but it is not an end in itself.
Where a state has a long term political goal to which they apply military methods and the resources of the state, that state can be said to have a grand strategy. To an extent, all states will have a grand strategy to a certain degree even if it is simply determining which forces to raise as a military, or how to arm them. Whilst Rome did raise and arm troops, they tend to raise them annually in response to the specific demands of the state during that year.
In the Empire, as the need for and size of the professional army grew, the possibility arose for the expansion of the concept of a grand strategy to encompass the management of the resources of the entire Roman state in the conduct of warfare: great consideration was given in the Empire to diplomacy and the use of the military to achieve political goals, both through warfare and also as a deterrent. Rome's grand strategy incorporates diplomacy through which Rome might forge alliances or pressure another nation into compliance, as well as the management of the post-war peace, as illustrated in Figure 1, below.
5. Operations are grouped in three areas that compose the range of military operation.
1. Military Engagement, Security Cooperation, and Deterrence. These are ongoing routine activities that establish, shape, maintain, and refine relations with other nations and domestic civil authorities (e.g., state governors or local law enforcement).
2. Crisis Response and Limited Contingency Operations. These can be small-scale, limited duration operations, such as strikes, raids, and peace enforcement, which might include combat depending on the circumstances.
3. Major Operations and Campaigns. These are extended-duration, large-scale operations that usually involve combat.
6. Joint Functions
Functions that are common to joint operations at all levels of war fall into six basic groups—command and control (C2), intelligence, fires, movement and maneuver, protection, and sustainment. The joint functions reinforce and complement one another, and integration across the functions is essential to mission accomplishment.
§ Command and Control
§ C2 encompasses the exercise of authority and direction by a commander over assigned and attached forces to accomplish the mission. The Provincial Council and senior military advisors provide operational vision, guidance, and direction to the joint force.
§ The intelligence function supports this understanding by providing integrated, evaluated, analyzed, and interpreted information concerning foreign provinces and ares, hostile or potentially hostile forces or elements, or areas of actual or potential operations. Intelligence tells Provincial Council what the enemy is doing, is capable of doing, and may do in the future.
§ To employ fires is to use available weapons and other systems to create a specific lethal or nonlethal effect on a target through the use of both conventional siege weapons and magical weapons both Area of Effect (AoE) spells and Mass Effect Spells (MES). Joint fires are those delivered during the employment of forces from two or more components in coordinated action to produce desired results in support of a common objective (to include integrated and coordinated use of Advanced Magical Practitioners (AMPs). Fires typically produce destructive effects, but various nonlethal ways and means (such as dispel magic, magical barriers to shape the battlespace or weather effecting spells) can be employed with little or no associated physical destruction.
§ Movement and Maneuver
§ This function encompasses the disposition of joint forces to conduct operations by securing positional advantages before or during combat operations and by exploiting tactical success to achieve operational and strategic objectives. This function includes moving or deploying forces into an operational area and maneuvering them to operational depths for offensive and defensive purposes. It also includes assuring the mobility of friendly forces.
§ The protection function focuses on preserving the joint force’s fighting potential in four primary ways. One way uses active defensive measures that protect the joint force, its information, its bases, necessary infrastructure, and lines of communications from an enemy attack. Terra Victoria is employing an early warning and communication system among its outlying urban areas (OUAs) by linking all OUAs with the Capital through an integrated Crystal-Ball Early Warning and C2 network. Another way uses passive defensive measures that make friendly forces, systems, and facilities difficult to locate, strike, and destroy. Finally, emergency management and response reduce the loss of personnel and capabilities due to accidents, health threats, and natural disasters.
§ Sustainment is the provision of logistics and personnel services necessary to maintain and prolong operations through mission accomplishment and redeployment of the force. Sustainment provides the Provincial Council and senior military advisors with the means to enable freedom of action and endurance and the ability to extend operational reach. Effective sustainment determines the depth to which the joint force can conduct decisive operations, allowing the joint military force to seize, retain, and exploit the initiative.
7. Organization, leadership and logistics
Command, control and structure
Once a soldier finishes his training he is typically assigned to a legion, the basic mass fighting force. The legion is split into ten sub-units called cohorts. The cohorts are further sub-divided into three maniples, which in turn are split into two centuries of about 60-100 men each. The first cohort in a legion is usually the strongest, with the fullest personnel complement and with the most skilled, experienced men. Several legions grouped together made up a distinctive field force or "army". Fighting strength could vary but generally a legion is made up of 4,800 soldiers, 60 centurions, 300 artillerymen, and 100 engineers and artificers, and around 1,600 non-combatants. Each legion is then supported by a unit of 300 cavalry, the equites.
Supreme command of all Terra Victoria forces is the Duke and the Barons on the Council. A praetor or a propraetor can only command a single legion and not a consular army, which normally consisted of two legions plus the allies.
Military structure and ranks
Below is a very basic summary of the Terra Victoria’s force structure. (Some of the designs are for future growth plans.)
§ Force structure
§ Contubernium: "tent unit" of 8 men
§ Centuria: 80 men commanded by a centurion
§ Cohort: 6 centuries or a total of 480 fighting men. Added to these were officers. Legion: made up of 10 cohorts
§ Field army: a grouping of several legions
§ Equites: Each legion is supported by 300 cavalry (equites) , sub-divided into ten turmae
§ Auxilia and velites: allied contingents, often providing light infantry and specialist fighting services, like archers, slingers, clerical support, magical support or other irregular warfare support units.
§ Non-combatant support: generally the men who tended the mules, forage, watering and sundries of the baggage train, although this could include some clerical and healing support.
§ Rank summary
§ Duke – overall Terra Victoria military commander, supreme joint allied commander
§ Baron – Terra Victoria Provincial leader, military commander only second to the Duke
§ Consul - official with military and/or civil duties, sometimes both – (technically the Duke and Barons are also Consuls.)
§ Praetor - appointed military commander of a legion or grouping of legions
§ Legatus legionis - the legateor overall legion commander
§ Tribune - young officers, second in command of the legion. Other lesser tribunes serve as junior officers
§ Prefect - third in command of the legion. (The Prefectus equitarius commands a unit of cavalry.)
§ Primus pilus - commanding centurion for the first cohort- the senior centurion of the entire legion
§ Centurion - basic commander of the century.
§ Decurio - commander of the cavalry unit or turma
§ Decanus- equivalent to a sergeant, commanded 8-man tent party
§ Aquilifer - standard bearer of each legion- a position of much prestige
§ Signifier - one for each century, handled financial matters and decorations
§ Optio- second on command for the centurion
§ Cornicen- horn blower or signaler
§ Imaginifer - carried standard bearing the official crest of Terra Victoria image
§ Munifex - basic legion fighter- the lowest of the trained rank and file
§ Tirones- new recruit to the legions, a novice
8. Joint Operations Across the Range of Military Operations
Military operations vary in scope, purpose, and conflict intensity across a range that extends from military engagement, security cooperation, and deterrence activities to crisis response and limited contingency operations and, if necessary, to major operations and campaigns.
In general, a military operation is a set of actions intended to accomplish a task or mission. Although the Terra Victoria military is organized, trained, and equipped for sustained, large-scale combat anywhere in the region, the capabilities to conduct these operations also enable a wide variety of other operations as well. Examples of military operations include stability operations; civil support; foreign humanitarian assistance (FHA); recovery; noncombatant evacuation (NEO); peace operations (PO); combating weapons of magical destruction (WMD); foreign internal defense (FID); combating terrorism; COIN; and homeland defense (HD). The range of military operations is laid out in Figure 2, below.
9. Traditional Roman Techniques
Tactical pre-battle maneuvers
Once the legion deployed on an operation, they would generally march to their objective. There are exceptions when the armies were transported by the Roman navy or by using some large scale magical transportation or even magical air-ships, but even then in most instances this was followed by a march of several days at least.
The approach to the battlefield is made in several columns, enhancing maneuver. Typically a strong vanguard preceded the main body, and included scouts, cavalry and light troops and Advanced Magical Practitioners (AMPs). A tribune or other officer often accompanied the vanguard to survey the terrain for possible camp locations.
Flank and recon elements were also deployed to provide the usual covering security. The most advanced recon elements available to Terra Victoria include elven rangers and Lord Vol’s supernatural undead special operations personnel. Behind the vanguard came the main body of heavy infantry. Each legion marches as a distinct formation and was accompanied by its own baggage train.
At the end of a day's march, the Romans typically establish a strong field camp called a castra, complete with palisade and a deep ditch, providing a basis for supply storage, troop marshalling and defence. Streets are laid out, units designated to take specific places, and guards posted at carefully designed gates. Construction could take between 2 to 5 hours with part of the army laboring, while the rest stand guard, depending on the tactical situation. This concentration of conservative security in deployment is mirrored both in the measured tactics of engagement for the infantry and by the largely conservative operational strategies employed.
The Roman heavy infantry typically is deployed, as the main body, facing the enemy, in three approximately equal lines, with the cavalry or equites on their wings to prevent them being flanked and turned, and light infantry in a screen in front of them to hide maneuvers of the heavy infantry, harass the enemy forces and, in some cases, drive off units such as elephants that would be a great threat to close-order heavy infantry. They were deployed in a quincunx checkered pattern. Alternative tactical formations were adopted occasionally.
Tactical deployment of non-human and/or non-Roman units.
Dwarven Tactics (summary)
Terra Victoria has a standing alliance with a large dwarven region and although it is unlikely that the dwarven allies would form en-masse with large numbers of troops, it is possible. What is more likely is that a small contingent of dwarven troops could be integrated into the overall joint military formation. Dwarven infantry typically consist of heavily armored personnel who prefer to use axes, warhammers or other bludgeoning devices unique to the dwarves (such as a war-pick). A formation therefore fights entirely differently than the typical Roman phalanx approach. See Figure 3 below for an artist’s rendering.
The dwarves are typically a defensive army. Their slow movement forces them into this. Fortunately they have mastered this type of defensive approach with tough troops, excellent infantry, crossbows and various types of war machines. A dwarf army is at its best slowly moving a few units forward and shooting the enemy forces with magical and conventional artillery while waiting for the enemy to close. Dwarves often aren’t fast enough to use a surprise element and thus choose their fights on the battlespace because they simply move too slowly as an overall force, but their lack of speed is made up by their stoutness in battle and the war-machines they bring with them. Dwarven clerics ought to be mentioned in particular as they are known to operate some of the most deadly war-clerics. They are fully integrated into dwarven military units in most cases.
[IMG]file:///C:/Users/Fitz/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image010.jpg[/IMG]Elven tactics (summary)
Elves are not a militaristic people by their nature. Although all elves are skilled in swordplay and archery, they too grow up learning, arts, magic, music and poetry for example. Unlike the dwarves, the elven culture is not focused on warfare. However, as an intense people, when all other diplomatic measures fail and the elves must resort to combat, their enemies are in for a foe of impossible strength, skill and cunning.
The elves prefer to utilize an irregular warfare approach. Although they can and have formed large ranks of elven infantry (see Figure 4), it is not their strength and they prefer to avoid that type of conventional formation if at all possible. Their true strength lies in the fact that they have a far greater number of Advanced Magical Practitioners (AMPs) than most other people. Also, their highly elite ranger and scouts provide excellent early warning and intelligence and can be used for surgical strikes or diversionary tactics. The elves use their cunning as a key weapon as they can often predict enemy movement and actions highly accurately. They can be combined in the Terra Victoria joint military, although they will prefer to remain somewhat independent and allowed some freedom from the main force to utilize their inherent advantages in the battlespace.
Terra Victoria includes a large contingent of Carnem amongst its population, including a senior council member. Their blood magic tactics are shrouded in secrecy as it is only explained to Carnem and is for all purposes a Special Access Program (SAP). Their military techniques are far from conventional. They utilize their superior speed and power to overwhelm and intimidate enemy forces if at all possible. Considering a typical Carnem is over eight feet tall (see Figure 5) they are amazingly fast as are they strong. They do not form traditional infantry units, but are organized in a clan structure, with a hierarchical clan rank structure, which carries over to their military leadership.
Utilizing their blood magic AMPs and their speed, the main Carnem tactic is to take an enemy force by surprise using magical means and sheer speed and ferocity of attack. Few in the region are familiar with Carnem and thus are often intimidated by their presence alone.
10. Fully Integrated Joint Military Operations
Terra Victoria operates a fully integrated joint military operations environment, from the C2 element through the lowest joint integrated unit as the military situation dictates.
Leadership understand the need to fully achieve military dominance in the region, all available assets must be properly utilized, arranged, commanded and employed given the situation.
Due to the fact that Terra Victoria seems often faces unconventional military threats, the overall military strategy is one of speed, decisiveness and use of maximum amount of force to quickly end any threat to the province and its population.